South Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences
2021, Vol. 1, Issue 2, Part A
Plant genetic engineering for medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs)Author(s):
Dhawale RN and Dudhare MSAbstract:
Genetic improvement of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs} has become necessary in recent years to broaden the relatively narrow genetic base of modern MAPs cultivars. Such broadenings is needed to supply kinds of cultivars of MAPs for exploitation. Biotechnology will provide essential and innovative support to standard plant breeding in the coming years, bringing in new generic systems, new techniques for selection and identification of genotypes, for making improved hybrid plants, and most importantly, deeper understanding of plant gene action, biochemistry and physiology for the human welfare. Progress in plant genetic engineering has been dependent on efficient methods of introducing new gene (exotic), or DNA fragment into plant cells. There are two methods of gene transfer that can be achieved by, a) either direct uptake of DNA by Shot-gun method and other is the natural process of gene transfer by Agrobacterium tumefaciens using different types of vectors based on the vector genome (Bhojwani, S.S., 1990) . The plant containing foreign gene called transgenic plant. Today, many transgenic plants have been engineered by the biote-hnologists with particular beneficial properties, such as, improvement of nutritional quality, resistance against herbicide, resistance against pest, resistance against viral infection, resistance against fungal pathogen, production of secondary metabolites, storage protein, extended shelf life of fruits, tolerance to environmental stresses, production of pharmaceutical products etc.Biotechnology or Plant Genetic Engineering will have a major impact on improvement of MAPs in coming years. The synergistic techniques of in vitro culture and genetic engineering techniques have made it actually or potentially to transfer any natural or In vitro modified gene to many MAPs species. Everyone who has studied organic chemistry knows that esters and aldehydes have smells or aromas. The flavor industry is dependent upon aroma chemicals, which are either extracted from natural sources or synthesized in the laboratory. The flavors industry is competitive and complex. The major companies achieve success through heavily supported research and development programmes linked to extensive market and consumer research. When several thousand tones of essential oils are produced the price are reasonable. It has been estimated that to produce a material by plant cell tissue culture with today's technology would mean selling prices of $1,000 to $5,000 per kilo (Allen &Fowler, 1985). So that, there is an aptly need of plant genetic engineering for the production of oil more than enough.Transgenic plants in addition to enhancing crop productivity provide a means to understand the mechanism of gene expression such as tissue specific expression of light regulated genes etc. plant genetic engineering of plants will depend upon the successful transfer of a desired gene. Therefore, plant genetic engineering is surely beneficial alternative if appropriate technologies are employed for specific problems in medicinal and aromatic plants too.Pages: 35-38 | Views: 301 | Downloads: 159Download Full Article: Click Here
How to cite this article:
Dhawale RN, Dudhare MS. Plant genetic engineering for medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs). South Asian J Agric Sci 2021;1(2):35-38.